Viral Antigens Research

Virus antigen is a toxin or other substance given off by a virus, which causes its host an immune response. Virus antigen detection tests can be performed directly on a variety of specimen types and are highly specific and rapid. The detection of viral antigens in clinical samples provides direct evidence of viral infection. Virus antigen is cell associated, collection of an adequate number of infected cells is important.

Research Reagents by Virus Types

Research Reagents by Viral Antigens

Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
Viral Molecules
Viral Molecules
Receptors & Infection related
 

Information about Viral Antigen Detection

Many of the assay formats used to detect antibodies are also used to detect viral antigens.

SPIA

SPIAs are widely used to detect HBV antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) and HIV p24 antigen.
   

Immunofluorescence

Direct immunofluorescent assays (DFA) for the detection of viral antigens in infected cells are widely used for the diagnosis of respiratory virus infections and herpetic skin lesions. DFA can be performed on many cellular sample types, especially nasopharyngeal washes, aspirates or swabs, bronchoalveloar lavage, skin and mucosal lesions, PBL and tissue biopsies.The advantage of this technique is that it is quick and easy to perform and results can be available in a short period of time. However, it requires a skilled operator and a flourescent microscope. It is a difficult procedure to scale up and non-specific binding can make interpretation of results difficult.
   

Lateral flow immunochromatography

IC assays are available for rotavirus but are most widely used for the detection of influenza A and B and RSV.
   

Latex agglutination


Latex beads coated with virus-specific antibodies have been used for the detection of viral antigen, such as for rotavirus and enteric adenovirus in stools of infants, and more recently for norovirus
   

Electron microscopy

It allows direct visualisation of the virus, but requires high viral titres to be detected.
 

Viral Antigen Research Related Information

 

Viral Antigen Research Reference

• Tony Mazzulli, in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fifth Edition), 2018

• David R. Peaper, Marie Louise Landry, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 2014

• Stephen N.J. Korsman MMed FCPath, ... Wolfgang Preiser MRCPath, in Virology, 2012